This is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populated country in the world (with over 1.2 billion people). It is the largest democracy in the world. Seas create most of the boundaries; the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. Additionally, India shares land borders with Pakistan, China and Nepal, to the northeast. The beautiful islands of Sri Lanka and the Maldives are close by, also gracing the Indian Ocean.
The Indian subcontinent housed one of the world’s earliest civilisations. The oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism were composed here. Large-scale urbanisation occurred on the Ganges river in the first millennium BC, leading to the development of Buddhism. In the 18th-century, the continent belonged to the Maratha Empire. In the 19th-century it fell under British Crown Rule. A nationalist movement soon began to emerge. Years later, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, this led to India finally gaining independence, in 1947.
By 2017, the Indian economy developed to be the world’s sixth most significant in the world. Following market-based reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing economies and is now considered an industrialised country. However, India continues to face challenging problems with poverty, corruption, and public healthcare.
As a nuclear weapons state and strong regional power, it has the second largest army in the world. India is governed under a parliamentary system as a federal republic and consists of 29 states.
Mahatma Gandhi led the independence movement, and Jawaharlal Nehru became India’s first prime minister in 1947. Both individuals were critical in shaping the prosperity of this continent. In the second half of the 19th-century, significant economic setbacks marked a rush for technology and the commercialisation of agriculture. Many small farmers became too dependent on far-away markets. Subsequently, when the markets failed, this caused an increase in the amount of large-scale famine. Despite the infrastructure development being paid for by Indian taxpayers, this generated very little local industrial employment for Indians themselves. The railway network, however, provided critical famine relief, and reduced the cost of moving goods, thus helping the Indian-owned industry.
India calls for self-rule
About 14.5 million people lost their family homes because of the division of India in 1947, known as Partition. After World War I, a new period began in the country. During the war, approximately one million Indians served as soldiers on behalf of the British. When Indians began to call for self-rule this marked a period of British reforms and repressive legislation. British rule eventually came to an end by the use of a non-violent movement. Gandhi went on to become the leader and enduring symbol of the freedom movement.
The country offers its visitors sumptuous, spicy cuisine – you haven’t truly eaten a curry until you’ve tried one in India! As well as the local food, you can enjoy spectacular views and breathtaking monuments such as the Taj Mahal. All around the country are abundant wildlife and lush vegetation.