Germany

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Germany

This European country is officially named the “Federal Republic of Germany”. The Republic includes 16 states covering an area of over 350,000 square kilometres. The spring and autumn weather is mostly temperate, but it does have a seasonal climate. Consequently, winters can be extremely cold with sub-zero temperatures.

 

With around 82 million inhabitants, Germany is currently the most populated member state in the European Union. The capital and biggest city is Berlin. However, the most significant area of population is the Ruhr, which includes the towns of Dortmund and Essen. Additionally, the major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover, and Nuremberg.

History

Germanic tribes inhabited the north, probably a long time before accurate records can date. Germania was a documented region even before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, Germanic tribes expanded southward.

By the beginning of the 10th century, German territories formed part of the Roman Empire. During the 16th-century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. The collapse of the Roman Empire led to the formation of the German Confederation in 1815.

In 1871, Germany became a fragile nation-state. Many of the German states unified to become a Prussian-dominated Empire.

The War Years

The parliamentary Weimar Republic replaced the Empire after the end of World War I and the German revolution of 1918–19. This led to years of troubled times for the Weimar Republic. There was great hardship and dissatisfaction among the people. Eventually, the Nazi Party seized power in 1933. This enabled the establishment of a dictatorship under Adolf Hitler. This, in turn, led to World War II and the Holocaust.

The Berlin Wall

Two states were created after the end of World War II. The Soviet invasion established West Germany, allied to the American, British and French zones. The famous Berlin Wall separated the zones of East and West Germany.

On 9 November 1989, following the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the wall was finally demolished. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced that all citizens could now visit West Germany.

Crowds from the east climbed onto the Berlin Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebration that lasted days. Decades of misery, of friends and families divided and harsh penalties for attempting to “crossover”, were finally at an end. The Republic of Germany is now a modern and united country.

History

Germanic tribes inhabited the north of the country, probably a long time before accurate records can date. Germania was a documented region even before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, Germanic tribes expanded southward.

By the beginning of the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. The collapse of the Roman Empire led to the formation of the German Confederation in 1815.

In 1871, Germany became a fragile nation-state when most of the German states unified to become the Prussian-dominated Empire.

The War Years

The parliamentary Weimar Republic replaced the Empire after the end of World War I and the German revolution of 1918–19. This led to years of troubled times Weimar Republic and dissatisfaction in the country. Eventually, the Nazi Party seized power in 1933. This enabled the establishment of a dictatorship under Adolf Hitler and led to World War II and the Holocaust.

Two states were created after the end of World War II with a period of Allied occupation. The Soviet invasion established West Germany, allied to the American, British and French zones. The famous Berlin Wall separated the zones of East and West Germany.

 

 

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