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Mexico (pronounced Me-hi-co in Mexican Spanish) is officially named the United Mexican States. The country is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America. Consequently, it has very strong ties with the United States. The border between the two countries is the subject of much contention, because thousands of illegal immigrants try to cross the border to find work each year.

Mexico is the 13th largest independent state in the world. The Pacific Ocean runs to the south and west. Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea are to the southeast. The Gulf of Mexico is to the east.

Spanish-speaking people

There are over 120 million, Spanish-speaking people living in the country. Mexico City is a federal entity in its own right, and also the capital. Mexico has a rich culture and history. The country ranks as number one in the Americas and seventh in the world, for UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Pre-Columbian Mexico dates back to about 8000 BC and identifies as one of seven cradles of civilisation. The Mayans and the Aztecs lived there for hundreds of years before the Spanish Empire colonised the country, in 1421. Mexican silver was the main attraction. The Mexican War of Independence ended with the recognition of independence, in 1821.

The post-independence period was tumultuous, with intense political changes. The Mexican–American War, The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, and civil war dominated 19th-century Mexico. The Mexican Revolution began in1910. This culminated in the 1917 Constitution and the start of the country’s current political system as a democratic republic.

Geography and Climate

Two mountain ranges split the country from north to south, named the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental. These mountains are an extension of the Rocky Mountains in America. From east to west at The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt crosses the country from east to west. This mountain range is usually known as the Sierra Nevada. With so many mountains, the majority of the areas in the centre and the north are at high altitude, with towns and cities in the valleys.

The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. The north is cool and mainly dry. In the south, there can be heavy rainfall, and the weather is relatively warm year-round. It can be scorching in summer.

The coastal areas can experience severe hurricanes during the summer and autumn. However, the area of Baja is on a peninsula is known as “New California. The peninsula area generally escapes the extreme storms.

In 2012, Mexico passed a climate change bill, a first for the developing world. The goal is to generate 35% of its energy from clean energy sources by 2024. Furthermore, the plan is to cut emissions by 50% and to produce 50% of the electricity used from renewable sources.